Hunslet-built Class J94 at Middleton Top








The following list includes the builders of steam, electric and diesel locomotives. In the latter cases the 'builder' is difficult to identify, because in later years the various components were often constructed by different firms and the name-epithet applied to such a locomotive may, for example, refer solely to the traction equipment.

1n 1987, many of the manufacturers were grouped under several parent holding companies. Thus the G.E.C. groups, A.E.I. Ltd. and E.E.Co. held G.E.C. Traction Ltd. and G.E.C. Diesels respectively. Other companies of historical importance within these groups were listed as dormant (B,T.-H. Ltd., Metro-Vickers, Paxman, Ruston & Hornsby). Hunslet (Holdings) PLC included Andrew Barclay, Greenbat, Hudswell Clarke and The Hunslet Engine Co. In the Hawker Siddeley Group PLC were listed Brush, R.A. Lister and also Westinghouse. But see also below.

The format is as follows: Builder (location) (age range of preserved examples as at 1980) [dates in production for the (British) railway industry] The titles are listed alphabetically under surnames where applicable.

The specialisations of steam locomotive builders are indicated thus:

i: industrial, rc: railcar, t: tram engine, vb: vertical boiler;

ic refers to internal combustion locomotives, drc refers to diesel railcar

The names of the various workshops are listed separately.

Click for H-Z

W.B. Adams (Bow) (-) [formed 1843-50]

Daniel Adamson & Co. (Hyde, Manchester) (-) [1866-1896] (i)

Airdrie Iron Co. (Airdrie) (-) [1869-1913] (i)

Alco (American Loco. Co.) (Schenectady) (1916) [formed as a combine 1901-1970, loco production ceased]

Allan Andrews & Co. (Kilmarnock) (-) [c1870-c1883]; latterly named Andrews, Barr & Co. then Barr Morrison & Co.; works taken over by Dick, Kerr & Co. (i)

Armstrong Whitworth, Sir W.G. & Co. Ltd. (Newcastle) (1933-7) [1847-8, 1860-4 and 1919-37; ic 1929-37]

Associated Electrical Industries Ltd. (Trafford Park)(formed by the U.S. company General Electric) [1968], part of G.E.C. after 1968

Associated Equipment Co. (AEC) Ltd. (Southall) (-) [ic 1938]; road vehicle and drc builders; see also Hardy Railmotors

Atkinson-Walker Waggons Ltd. (Preston) (1928) [1926-31] (vb)

Aveling & Porter Ltd. (Canterbury) (1872-1926) [1864-1926]; primarily road engine producers (i)

Avonside Engine Co. Ltd. (Bristol) (1897-1933) [formed 1866, ic from 1914, closed 1934], patterns taken over by Hunslet in 1935; see also Stothert

W.G. Bagnall Ltd. (Stafford) (1890-1957) [formed 1875, ic from 1914, took out licence with Deutz in 1934, sold and became Brush-Bagnall Traction Ltd. in 1951, abs. by E.E. in 1961, loco work ceased in 1962]

E.E. Baguley (Engineers) Ltd. (Burton-on-Trent) (1916-53) [formed 1914, steam loco works closed 1931] originally Baguley (Cars) Ltd.: ic from 1912, latterly Baguley-Drewry Ltd. (Burton-on-Trent), in business 1986 (i)

M.W. Baldwin & Co. (Philadelphia) (1902-30) [formed 1832], latterly B.-Westinghouse

Balmforth Bros. (Rodley, Yorks) (-) [1876] (vb)

Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co. Ltd. (Kilmarnock) (1889-1970) [formed 1840, locos built from 1859, ic from 1916, in business 1986, part of Hunslet (Holdings) from 1972, sold 1991]; a subordinate company Barclays & Co. (Kilmarnock) was in business 1872-88

W. Beardmore & Co. (Glasgow) (-) [1919-c35, ic c1930]

Bellis & Seekings Ltd (Birmingham) (1874) [c1849-74], later Bellis & Morcom Ltd (parent company of Crossley-Premier Engines Ltd.) (i)

Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd. (Gorton) (1866-1961) [formed 1854, loco. production ceased 1966], latterly Beyer Peacock Gorton Ltd; a subsidiary, Beyer Peacock (Hymek) Ltd. (ic) was formed in 1959.

Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. (Smethwick) (-) formed 1855 [1958-64]; also coachwork for rc

Birmingham Small Arms (BSA) Co. Ltd. (Birmingham) built Drewry ic rail vehicles 1909-12

Black, Hawthorn & Co. Ltd. (Gateshead) (1873-87) [1865, took over the works of R. Coulthard & Co.-1896, purchased by Chapman & Furneaux] (i)

Blackstone & Co. Ltd. (Stamford) [ic in early 1920s] later part of Lister-Blackstone Group

E. Borrows & Sons, Engineers (St Helens) (1897-1909) [formed 1865, sold 1910 to H.W. Johnson] (i)

Braithwaite & Co. (New Road, London) (-) [1829-39], became Braithwaite, Milner & Co. in 1836

Brassey & Co. (Birkenhead) see Peto, Brassey & Betts

British Thomson-Houston (BT-H) Co. Ltd. (Rugby) (1932) [1900-61] latterly part of A.E.I. Ltd; mainly producers of diesel power equipment

R. Brotherhood (Chippenham) (-) [1857-67]

Brown, Boveri & Co. Ltd. (Baden) (-) [1950] developers of electric transmission and gas turbine

Brush Electrical Traction Ltd./Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd. (Loughborough) (1906-57) [formed 1889-in business 1986, part of Hawker Siddeley group, later part of the BTR group]

Bury, Curtis & Kennedy (Liverpool) (1846) [1830-51, closed], known as Edward Bury & Co. until 1842

Butterley Company (Ripley) (-) [1813-1907] (i); see also Hibberd

Alexander Chaplin & Co. Ltd. (Glasgow) (1885) [1860-1900s] (vb)

Chapman & Furneaux, Ltd. (Gateshead) (-) [1896, took over the works of Black, Hawthorn & Co.-1902, patterns sold to Hawthorn, Leslie] (i)

Clayton Equipment Co. Ltd. (Derby) (-) [1957-70], in business 1987, mining equipment manufacturer

Clayton Wagons Ltd. (Lincoln) (-) [1917-30] (rc,vb)

Clyde Loco. Co. Ltd. (Glasgow) (-) [formed 1884, taken over by Sharp Stewart 1888]

Coalbrookdale Company (Coalbrookdale) (1865) [?1802-c1865] (i)

Cooke Loco. Co. (New Jersey) (-) [1899-1900]

Corpet, Louvet & Cie (Seine,Paris) (1888)

John Coulthard & Son (Gateshead) (-) [1835-65, taken over by Black, Hawthorn], known as R. Coulthard & Co. from 1853

Cravens Ltd. (Darnall, Sheffield) [1867-1965, (interests taken over by Metro-Cammell)] coachwork for rc

James Cross & Co. (St Helens) (-) [1864-6]

Crossley Brothers Ltd. (Manchester) diesel engine manufacturers

Davey, Paxman & Co. Ltd. (Colchester) (1923-6) [founded 1865, member of Ruston group from 1940 (q.v.), complete locos built from 1947] latterly Paxman Diesels Ltd., member of the E.E. group

Davies & Metcalfe Ltd. (Romiley, Stockport) (1902) primarily injector manufacturers

Deutz Engines (London) (1930-2) [licensed Bagnall in 1934-in business 1987], subsidiary of Klockner Humboldt Deutz AG (Cologne)

de Winton (Caernarvon) (1877-95) [c1865-closed 1902] (vb)

Dick, Kerr & Co. Ltd. (Kilmarnock, later Preston) (c1918) [formed 1883, previously W.B. Dick & Co., petrol-electric locos from 1914, part of E.E. group from 1918] (i,t)

Dick & Stevenson (Airdrie) (-) [1864-90] (i)

Dodds & Son (Rotherham) (-) [c1849-68]

Alfred Dodman & Co. (Kings Lynn) (1893) [1893] (i)

Drewry Car Co. Ltd. (Teddington, London) (1926-61) [formed 1903-in business 1986, as Baguley-Drewry Ltd., following a working arrangement of 1914]

Dubs & Co. (Glasgow) (1874-1901) [formed 1864, merged to form North British (q.v.) in 1903]

Ebbw Vale Steel Iron & Coal Co. Ltd. (-) [1905-17] (i)

George England & Co. Ltd. (New Cross) (1857) [1849-69, closed], works taken over by Fairlie (q.v.)

English Electric Co. Ltd., English Electric Traction Ltd. from 1962 (London, Preston, Stafford) (1927-66) [formed 1918 from amalgamation including Dick, Kerr, latterly incorporating Stephenson & Hawthorn, Vulcan Works and (Brush-)Bagnall (as G.E.C. Diesels q.v.)]

R. Evans & Co. (Haydock Colliery) (-) [1869-87] (i)

W. Fairbairn & Sons (Manchester) (-) [1839-63], loco building taken over by Sharp, Stewart

Fairlie Engine & Steam Carriage Co. (Westminster) [1869-72] patent holders for double-ended steam loco, first built 1852; took over works of G. England (q.v.)

Falcon Engine & Car Works (Loughborough), owned successively by Hughes E.Co. and Brush E.E.Co. (q.v.)

Fenton, Murray & Wood (Leeds) (-) [1812-43] latterly known as Fenton, Murray & Jackson

Fletcher, Jennings & Co. (Lowca Works, Whitehaven) (1865-80) [originally Tulk & Ley : locos built from 1840, taken over 1857, known as (New) Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd. from 1884, closed in 1912] (i)

Fossick & Hackworth (Stockton) (-) [1839-66]

Foster, Rastrick & Co. (Stourbridge) (1829) [1829]

John Fowler & Co. Ltd. (Leeds) (1923-58) [locos built 1866-1968, ic from 1923] loco work taken over by Barclays in 1969

Fox, Walker & Co. (Bristol) (1874-8) [formed 1864, taken over by Peckett in 1880]

(Societe) Franco-Belge de Materiel du Chemins de Fer (La Croyere, Belgium) (1944)

L. Gardner & Sons Ltd (Patricroft) (1959) [1952-in business 1986] long-established diesel engine manufacturer, later in Perkins Engines Group (Varity Holdings)]

General Electric Co. (Daventry) (1949) [1889-1962], latterly G.E.C. Traction Ltd., G.E.C. Diesels (Newton-le-Willows), includes A.E.I. Ltd. and E.E. Co; contractors for ic and electric traction. In 1989 the Power Systems Division of G.E.C. was merged with Alstom (France).

Gibb & Hogg, Ltd. (Airdrie) (1898) [1890s-1912, closed] (i)

Gilkes, Wilson & Co. (Middlesbrough) (-) [1847-75], known as Hopkins, Gilkes & Co. Ltd. from 1865

Glasgow Railway Engineering Co. Ltd. (Govan) (-) [founded by D. Drummond in 1891-locos built until c1905] (i,rc)

Gloucester R.C. & W. Co. Ltd. (Gloucester) coachwork for rc, closed 1962

Grant, Ritchie & Co. (Kilmarnock) (1894-1914) [1879-1920] (i)

Thomas Green & Son Ltd. (Leeds) (1908) [1880s-1920] (i,t); built some ic locos for Hudsons in 1928; primarily agricultural and road-making equipment manufacturer

Greenwood & Batley Ltd. (Leeds) (1930) [1878-in business 1986 as Greenbat Ltd., member of Hunslet (Holdings), manufacturers of mining locos]

Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds, Ltd. (Cardiff, Cwmbran and Dowlais) (-) [1906-28] (i)

Timothy Hackworth (Wylam Colliery, later Stockton & Darlington R., Shildon) (1835) [1813-49]

Haigh Foundry (Wigan) (-) [1835-56, closed]

Hardy Railmotors Ltd. (Southall) [ic 1923-36] latterly part of AEC

Harland & Wolff Ltd. (Belfast) (-) [locos built 1933-8 inc ic]

Hartley, Arnoux & Fanning (Stoke-on-Trent) (-) [1891-3, taken over by Kerr Stuart]

Hawthorns & Co. (Leith) (1861) took over the works of R. & W. Hawthorn in 1850, locos built into 1880s

R. & W. Hawthorn Ltd. (Leith and Newcastle) (1884) [1831-84] merged with A. Leslie & Co. (Hebburn) to form:

Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. (Newcastle) (1899-1938) [1884-1937, ic from 1915, loco works purchased by R. Stephenson & Co.]

Head, Wrightson (Teesdale) Ltd. (Thornaby) (1870-3) primarily founders and wagon producers (vb)

Robert Heath & Sons Ltd. (Biddulph, Stoke-on-Trent) (1896) [1888-1926]

William Hedley (Wylam Colliery) (1813) [1813]

Henschel (Kassel) (1911-48)

F.C. Hibberd & Co. Ltd. (Park Royal, London) (1927-63) [ic from 1926, own works opened 1932, closed 1963, business moved to Butterley Co. Ltd. (Ripley) in operation until 1971] builders of 'Planet' type loco after acquisition of Kent Construction (q.v.)

Benjamin Hick (Bolton) (-) [1833-50] latterly known as Hick, Hargreaves & Co.

Th. Hill (Rotherham) Ltd. (1961) [****-in business 1986, subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Ltd., latterly of Vickers PLC]

Honeywill Brothers: see Kent Construction

A. Horlock & Son (Northfleet, Kent) (1848) [1848]

J. & F. Howard Ltd. (Bedford) [ic 1924-1931 closed] business sold to Hibberd in 1932

R. Hudson (Leeds) (1929-68) [founded 1865] not builders: had working agreement with Kerr Stuart and sub-let orders to Hunslet

Hudswell, Clarke & Co. (Leeds) (1888-1961) [formed 1860 when took over part of E.B. Wilson's works, ic from 1925, in business 1987, part of Hunslet (Holdings) from 1972] known as Hudswell, Clarke & Rodgers from 1870-81

Hughes Engine Co. (Loughborough) (1878) [formed 1866, taken over by Brush E.E.Co. in 1889] (i,t)

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. (Leeds) (1882-1970) [formed 1864, ic from 1932, in business 1986 as part of Hunslet (Holdings) PLC] latterly acquiring patterns of Avonside, Kerr Stuart, Kitson and Manning Wardle and purchasing Andrew Barclay; built last British steam loco in 1964. Taken over by Telfos (1987), then (1992) by Jenbacher Transport Group (Austria).

George Inglis & Co. (Airdrie) (-) [1900s] (i)

J. & G. Joicey & Co. (Newcastle) (-) [1867-94] (i)

Jones & Potts (Newton-le-Willows) (-) [c1837-52] first known as Jones, Turner & Evans; works became Earlestown C. & W. Works

James C. Kay & Co. (Bury) [ic c1930]

Kent Construction & Engineering Co. Ltd. (Ashford, Kent) (1926-53) [ic 1920-6, loco construction taken over by Hibberd] builders of 'Planet' type loco; traded under the name of Honeywill Brothers (London)

Kerr, Stuart & Co. Ltd. (Stoke-on-Trent) (1901-30) [formed 1881, ic from 1903, closed 1930] patterns acquired by Hunslet; first known as James Kerr & Co. who subcontracted loco building to firms including Hartley, Arnoux & Fanning, until the works was taken over in 1893 (i,rc) Kilmarnock Engineering Co. (Kilmarnock) (-) [1920, ic in 1930] took over former works of Dick, Kerr (i)

Kinmond, Hutton & Steel (Dundee) (-) [1838-c1860] latterly known as Kinmond & Co.

Kirkless Hall Coal & Iron Co. (Wigan) see Wigan Coal & Iron

Kirtley & Co. (Warrington) (-) [1837-41] founded by William Kirtley

W. & A. Kitching (Darlington) (1845) [1835-60]

Kitson & Co. Ltd. (Leeds) (1882-1934) [formed c1863-1938, closed], see Todd, Kitson & Laird

Krauss-Maffei (Locomotivfabric Krauss & Co.) (Munchen-Allach) (1926)

Friedrich Krupp (Essen) (1934-7)

S. Lewin (Poole) (1863) [1863-80] (i)

Lilleshall Co. Ltd. (Oakengates) (-) [1862-88] (i)

R.A. Lister & Co. Ltd. (Dursley) (1930-54) [ic from c1926, loco construction ceased in 1970] Lister-Blackstone Traction Ltd. (associated company) (1955-63); in business 1987 as member of Hawker Siddeley group]

Llanelly Railway & Dock Co. (Llanelly) (-) [1840-73, taken over by the G.W.R.]

Longbotham Railway Foundry (Barnsley) (-) [1847]

R.B. Longridge & Co. (Bedlington, Northumberland) (-) [1837-53, sold]

Manning, Wardle & Co. Ltd. (Leeds) (1877-1926) [formed 1858, took over part of E.B. Wilson's works in 1862, ic 1915-20, closed 1927] part of works acquired by Hunslet (i,rc,t)

Markham & Co. Ltd. (Chesterfield) (1894) [1889-1914], purchased Oliver & Co. Ltd (Chesterfield) in 1889 (i)

Mather, Dixon & Co. (Liverpool, later Bootle) (-) [1827-43]

McEwan, Pratt & Co. Ltd. (Wickford, Essex) [ic 1905-12] taken over by Baguley (Cars) Ltd. in 1914

Merryweather & Sons Ltd. (Greenwich Road, London) (-) [1872-92], in business 1987 as part of Siebe PLC (t)

Metropolitan-Cammell (C. & W. Co.) Ltd. (Birmingham) [formed 1927 from merger of Cammell Laird and Vickers-in business 1987, part of Laird Group PLC], merged with Cravens Ltd. (Darnall, Sheffield) in 1965. Acquired by GEC Alsthom in 1989 (coachwork for rc; drc)

Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. (Manchester and Barrow-in-Furness) (1912-22) [1919-1968, formerly British Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. of 1899; latterly part of A.E.I. Ltd.] electrical traction manufacturer

Monmouthshire Railway & Canal Co. (Newport) (-) [1867-75, taken over by the G.W.R.]

Motor Rail (& Tram Car Co.) Ltd. (Lewes, Bedford) (1916-72) [formed 1911, ic from 1915-in business 1986]; producers of 'Simplex' type

Muir-Hill Service Equipment Ltd. (Trafford Park) [ic 1926-40]

Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd. (Patricroft) (1894-1912) [formed 1867, ic from 1911, closed 1939] Nasmyth set up the Bridgewater Foundry in 1836 as Nasmyth, Gaskell & Co.

Neath Abbey Iron Co. (-) [1829-1880s]

Neilson & Co. (Glasgow), previously Neilson & Mitchell, etc. from 1836, (1870-96) [formed 1855-1898, see below]

Neilson, Reid & Co. Ltd. (Glasgow) (1901-2) [1898-1903, merged to form North British q.v.]

North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. (Glasgow) (1908-59) [formed 1903 as merged Dubs, Neilson Reid and Sharp Stewart companies, closed 1962]

Orenstein & Koppel A.G. (Berlin, Dortmund, Lubeck) (1912-39) [formed 1876-1968]

Parfitt & Jenkins (Cardiff) (-) [1869-81]

Paxman Diesels Ltd. (Colchester) see Davey, Paxman

Peckett & Sons Ltd. (Bristol) (1896-1961) [took over Fox, Walker 1880, taken over by Reed Crane & Hoist Co. Ltd. in 1968] (i)

Peto, Brassey & Betts (Birkenhead) (-) [1854-75], first known as Brassey, Jackson, Betts & Co.

Petters, Ltd. (Staines) (part of Hawker Siddeley Group PLC)

'Planet': see Kent Construction Co., also Hibberd

Premier Locomotives: see James C. Kay

Priestman Brothers Ltd. (Hull) built the world's first successful oil-engined loco in 1894; crane and excavator manufacturer

Ransomes & Rapier Ltd. (Ipswich) (1937) [founded 1868, ic 1928-39] primarily crane manufacturer

G. & J. Rennie (Blackfriars) (-) [1838-43]

Thomas Richardson & Sons (Hartlepool) (-) [1840-57]

Ridley, Shaw & Co. Ltd. (Middlesbrough) (-) [1899-1925] (i)

Rolls Royce Oil Engines Division (Derby) (-) [formed 1950, moved to Shrewsbury in 1957]: see Sentinel; took over Yorkshire E. Co. designs in 1965

Rothwell & Co. (Bolton) (-) [1831-64]

Ruston & Hornsby Ltd. (Lincoln), previously R. Hornsby & Sons Ltd. (Grantham) founded 1815, see below, (1932-65) [ic from 1896, taken over by E.E. in 1966 when loco production ceased] latterly at Vulcan Works; patterns transferred to Motor Rail

Ruston, Proctor & Co. Ltd. (Lincoln) (ic 1915-8) [1866-merged with Hornsby & Sons in 1918 (i)

Sara (& Burgess) & Co. (Penryn) (1868) [1868] (vb)

Scott, Sinclair & Co. (Greenock) (-) [1847-9]

Sentinel (Waggon Works) Ltd. (Shrewsbury) (1926-63) [1923-works taken over by Rolls-Royce Ltd. 1957] (i,rc)

Alexander Shanks & Son, Ltd. (Arbroath) [1872-7] (i)

Sharp, Stewart & Co. Ltd. (Manchester; Glasgow from 1888) (1863-96) [formerly Sharp, Roberts & Co. formed 1828, then Sharp Bros.; took over Fairbairn in 1863, Clyde Loco. Co. in 1888; merged to form North British q.v. in 1903]

Shotts Iron Co. Ltd. (Shotts, Lanarkshire) [1900] (i)

'Simplex': see Motor Rail

W. Sisson & Co. Ltd. (Gloucester) (-) [1911] (rc)

W. Spence (Dublin) (1895-1920) [1887-1921] (i)

R. Stephenson (& Hawthorns, Ltd.) (Newcastle, Darlington from 1902) (1822-1962) [formed 1823, ic 1938-41 and from 1945, closed 1964, latterly part of E.E. group] incorporated Hawthorn Leslie & Co., Kitson & Co., Manning Wardle & Co.

Stockton Ironworks (Stockton) (1900)**

H. Stothert & Co. (Bristol) [founded 1837] became Stothert, Slaughter & Co. (Bristol) in 1841, became Slaughter, Gruning & Co. (Bristol) in 1856, renamed Avonside E. Co (q.v.) in 1866

Sulzer Bros. Ltd. (Winterthur) [1958-67]

Swiss Loco. Co. (Winterthur) (1895-1923)

Taylor & Sons (Briton Ferry) (-) [1896-1941] (i)

Thornewill & Warham Ltd. (Burton-on-Trent) (-) [1861-90] (i)

Todd, Kitson & Laird (Leeds) (1838) [1838-c1863], had various names with Kitson in common, predecessors of Kitson & Co. (q.v.)

Richard Trevithick (Coalbrookdale, later Pen-y-darran) [?1802/4-8]

Vulcan Foundry Ltd. (Newton-le-Willows) originally known as Tayleur's founded 1830 (1918-45) [1833, ic 1934 and after 1941, taken over by E.E. in 1955, loco production ceased in 1968, when G.E.C. and E.E. merged] works taken over by Ruston & Hornsby, G.E.C. Diesels

Walker Bros. (Wigan) Ltd. (1940-51) [1872-**] (i,drc)

W. Whiteley & Sons Ltd (Lockwood, Huddersfield) [1898]

D. Wickham & Co. Ltd. (Ware) (1932-61) [1920s-in business 1986, ic 1928-36] railcar builders

Wigan Coal & Iron Co. Ltd. (Wigan) (1887) [formed 1865-1912, loco production ceased] first known as Kirkless Hall Coal & Iron Co. (i)

W. Wilkinson (Wigan) (-) [1881-96] (t,vb)

E.B. Wilson & Co. (Leeds) (1855, section only) [1839-1858] works taken over by Manning Wardle (1862) and Hudswell Clarke (1860); known initially as Shepherd & Todd, then taken over to become Fenton, Craven & Co.

Wingrove & Rogers Ltd. (Liverpool) (1921-68) [***-in business 1986] mining equipment and battery electric manufacturer

Wolseley Motor & Tool Co. Ltd. (Birmingham) [ic c1903-4]

Woolwich Arsenal (London) [c1918-20]

Worcester Engine Co. (Worcester) (-) [1865-70]

Wylam Colliery see Hackworth, Hedley

Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd. (Sheffield) (1931-56) [formed 1865-taken over by United Steel Cos. in 1945 then by Rolls-Royce Ltd. in 1965: loco building ceased]